Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an acute viral disease characterized by blistering rashes in the mouth, hands, and feet. It is known that the incidence rate is high in summer and autumn when outdoor activities are high. Symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease can be seen with the naked eye, but sometimes it is difficult to detect when the number of blisters on the hands and feet is very small, or when the blisters are small and a red general rash is formed. Although this hand, foot and mouth disease also occurs in adults, it has been reported that the incidence is high mainly in children under the age of 4 with weakened immunity. Hand, foot and mouth disease is mainly caused by enteroviruses such as coxsackievirus, echovirus, and poliovirus. Among these, most cases can be said to be caused by coxsackie virus, and the route of infection is known to be due to droplet infection caused by direct contact with saliva, sputum, runny nose, and blister exudate of a patient with hand, foot and mouth disease. It is also reported to be transmitted by oral infections such as feces. Now, let’s learn about the main symptoms, treatment, and prevention of hand, foot and mouth disease. Main symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease
The most characteristic symptom of hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a small blistering rash that forms on the hands and feet. In addition, lesions may form on the tongue, roof of the mouth, gums, lips, etc., and blisters may also form on the knees or buttocks. In addition, various symptoms such as fever, sore throat, loss of appetite, headache, vomiting, neck stiffness, back pain, lethargy, etc. may appear, and dehydration due to water loss in the body may also occur. This hand, foot and mouth disease appears in its most severe form for the first two to three days, and then, in many cases, the main symptoms improve and spontaneous recovery occurs within a week or so. However, if the virus invades the central nervous system due to worsening of symptoms, complications such as encephalitis and meningitis may occur, and there is a risk of causing shock due to complications. In particular, in the case of infants and young children, the age group with the highest incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease, there is a risk of complications due to hand, foot and mouth disease. How to treat and prevent hand, foot and mouth disease
1. Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis of hand, foot and mouth disease is confirmed by looking at the symptoms and skin lesions. Most symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease disappear within 3 to 7 days and improve on their own, but if the symptoms persist, treatment for symptom control is performed. In addition, if there is a risk of dehydration due to the influence of lesions in the mouth due to difficult intake of food, symptomatic therapy including fluid therapy is performed. In addition, if severe complications are accompanied, treatment is performed accordingly.
2. Personal hygiene management
As there is no separate preventive vaccine for hand, foot and mouth disease, it is important to minimize viral infection through contact with saliva, saliva, body fluids, and secretions. In particular, it is good to make it a habit to wash your hands frequently, which is the biggest route for viruses and bacteria to enter our body. It is advisable to wash your hands thoroughly after going out, having a bowel movement, before and after eating, and before changing diapers. In addition, thorough management of the surrounding environment is required, such as wiping toys, play equipment, and household items using cleaning agents.
3. Restriction of contact after onset
Since hand, foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, contact should be minimized to prevent the spread of hand, foot and mouth disease after the outbreak. In particular, if a child is infected, avoid going to kindergartens or daycare centers as much as possible, and refrain from going out to places where many people gather. It is also important to thoroughly wash the clothes worn by the patient to prevent the spread of feces and foreign substances.